Council of Thieves
ARODEN was an immortal descendant of the ancient human kingdom of Azlant (basically Atlantis) that sank below the waters of the Arcadian Ocean in -5293 AR when the Starstone fell from space. The impact created the Inner Sea and cast the world into a thousand years of darkness.
Somehow, being a total badass, Aroden was the lone survivor of his people. Thus, he is considered the "Last of the First Humans".
He is best known for raising the Starstone to its current resting place on the Isle of Kortos, at the heart of the city of Absalom, capital of the world. He thereafter ascended into the heavens, becoming a god, mostly worshipped in the nation of Taldor.
After his ascension, Aroden worked hard to protect and aid humanity. He guided the brightest and finest of humanity to Absalom, and encouraged the growth of the city. He preferred to provide aid from a distance but when necessary, Aroden took a very active role in the destruction of humanity's foes.
Over a few thousand years, Taldor spread its borders northwest across the southern reaches of the continent of Avistan, claiming territory in what is now known as Cheliax, and Aroden's religion spread with it. As Taldor eventually became decadent and effete, the clerics of Aroden took their religion (and their mandate from heaven) west to Cheliax.
Aroden was a god of human culture, innovation, and history. An important prophecy known as the Starfall Doctrine suggested that he was to manifest in Cheliax in 4606 AR, marking the beginning of a long-awaited Age of Glory. Instead, at the appointed hour, Golarion was racked with three weeks of storms that left the Eye of Abendego, a vicious, permanent hurricane, as a lasting reminder. When the weather broke, the clerics of Aroden found themselves disconnected from their god, and all presume Aroden is dead.
No one knows for sure what happened to Aroden, or if he is truly alive or dead. He is presumed to be dead because his clerics no longer receive his spells, and because of the appearance of the Eye of Abendego and Worldwound, a chasm that opened in the North to the demon-filled Abyss itself. Countless theories exist about how he might have died, including a battle with Rovagug (monstrous god of Destruction) or Asmodeus (archfiend ruler of the Nine Hells), a journey beyond the Outer Sphere, or reincarnation into a mortal man to save humanity. The gods might know his true fate, but if they do, they are not revealing it to mortals.